Seat Belts: Advice and Information
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This fact sheet about seat belts gives advice and information on several issues, you can use the links below to navigate around the page.
The Purpose of Seat Belts
Seat belts are designed to retain people in their seats, and so prevent or reduce injuries suffered in a crash. They ensure that as little contact is made between the occupant and vehicle interior as possible and significantly reduce the risk of being thrown from a vehicle.
On modern vehicles, seat belts are now also designed to work as the key part of wider injury prevention measures and safety systems, such as airbags and head restraints, which will not be as effective in reducing the risk of injury if an occupant is not wearing a seat belt.
ALWAYS WEAR A SEAT BELT WHEN TRAVELLING IN THE FRONT, OR THE REAR, OF A VEHICLE THAT HAS SEAT BELTS FITTED.
ALWAYS MAKE SURE THAT CHILDREN TRAVEL IN AN APPROPRIATE CHILD RESTRAINT OR IN A SEAT BELT IF THEY ARE TOO BIG FOR A CHILD RESTRAINT.
Please refer to the fact sheet about Seat Belt Law if you are looking for further information on the legal aspects of wearing a seat belt.
Facts And Figures
Car occupants form 64% of all road casualties. In 2010, 133,205 people were killed or injured while travelling in cars, of these 89,787 (67%) were drivers.
Table 1, shows the number of car occupant casualties during 2010, sorted by severity of injury, and seating position. Source: Reported Road Casualties 2010, DfT, London September 2011.
Over 90% of adult front seat passengers and drivers wear seat belts, as do 66% of adult rear seat passengers. Since the law to wear seat belts in the front was introduced in 1983, front seat belts are estimated to have saved over 50 thousand lives in Great Britain.
Ensuring You Use A Seat Belt Correctly
In order to wear a seat belt safely, the following points should be adhered to:
- The belt should be worn as tight as possible, with no slack
- The lap belt should go over the pelvic region, not the stomach
- The diagonal strap should rest over the shoulder, not the neck
- Nothing should obstruct the smooth movement of the belt by trapping it
In most modern vehicles, the height of the top of the seat belt can be adjusted on the B-pillar. If you cannot get the seat belt to fit over you correctly, as described above, you should try adjusting the height.
Damaged Seat Belts
Seat belts should be regularly checked for damage. Common forms of damage to the seat belt that will reduce its effectiveness in an accident, and also lead to the vehicle failing an MOT test, are:
- Fraying or fluffing around the edges of the seat belt
- A cut which causes the fabric to split
- A hole in the seat belt
- Damage to the buckle
In an accident, the webbing of a seat belt stretches, which absorbs some of the energy in an impact. This helps prevent any injury from the contact between the seat belt and occupant. A seat belt that has restrained an occupant in an accident would be more likely to cause an occupant injury if it were involved in another accident, and must always be replaced.
If any forces are applied to a seat belt, which are larger than would be expected during its usual operational life, it may also be worth having it checked to see if the webbing of the belt has been strained.
If in doubt, take your car to a garage to have the belt inspected by an expert.
Pregnant Occupants and Seat Belts
All pregnant women must wear seat belts by law when travelling in cars. This applies to both front and back seats and pregnancy does not in itself automatically provide exemption from the law. The safest way for pregnant women to wear a seat belt is:
- Place the diagonal strap between the breasts (over the breastbone) with the strap resting over the shoulder, not the neck.
- Place the lap belt flat on the thighs, fitting comfortably beneath the enlarged abdomen, and over the pelvis not the bump.
- The belt should be worn as tight as possible.
In this way the forces applied in a sudden impact can be absorbed by the body's frame.
Pregnant women should not wear 'Lap-only-Belts' as they have been shown to cause grave injuries to unborn children in the event of sudden deceleration. Mother and unborn child are both safer in a collision if a lap and diagonal seat belt is being worn correctly.
Although lap belts are not recommended for pregnant women, they are safe and suitable for other adult passengers. Three-point seat belts are safer, but wearing a lap belt is far better than wearing no seat belt at all, because the greatest risk of injury to car occupants in an accident comes from being thrown about inside the vehicle or being ejected from it.
The lap belt should go over the pelvis (not the soft stomach area) and fit as tightly as possible. Most car manufacturers now fit at least some of their range with a three-point seat belt in the centre of the rear seat.
Seat Belt Adjustment
Several devices exist which are designed to attach to the seat belts in order to pull them into a different position or change the way in which they rest on an occupant.
A common form of seat belt adjuster changes the path of the adult belt over the shoulder of a younger occupant. RoSPA do not recommend the use of these devices, as no standards currently exist ensuring a basic crashworthiness. It is much safer to purchase an appropriate child restraint, as they are crash tested to a European wide standard.
Other devices, which pad the seat belt, may also degrade its performance in a crash and put an occupant at greater risk.
Child Car Seats
Children must use a child car seat until they are either 135cm in height or 12 years old. For more information on Child Car Seats, RoSPA has a website (www.childcarseats.org.uk) which provides advice on choosing, fitting and using child car restraints, details of legal requirements for using child restraints in other countries, links to manufacturers, retailers, and other organisations that can provide help or advice about child car restraints and a search facility to find local sources of help and information in your area.
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